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How to use intracardiac echocardiography for atrial fibrillation ablation procedures

Published:November 10, 2006DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2006.10.027
      Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) has been an important tool in the development of advanced catheter ablation procedures. ICE technology now allows complete echocardiographic interrogation of all four heart chambers from the right atrium. A list of the uses for ICE in ablation procedures is given in Table 1.
      Table 1Uses for intracardiac echocardiography in ablation procedures
      • Identification of atrial anatomy
      • Facilitation of transseptal puncture
      • Catheter navigation and positioning
      • Visualization of pulmonary venous anatomy
      • Identification of procedural complications
        • Pulmonary vein stenosis
        • Pericardial effusion
        • Microbubble formation (tissue overheating)
        • Thrombus formation on sheath/catheter
      • Assessment of electrode–tissue contact
      • Visualization of esophagus–atrial continuity
      • Titration of radiofrequency energy
      • Visualization of radiofrequency lesion generation
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