Advertisement

HRS Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Management of Arrhythmias Associated With Cardiac Sarcoidosis

      This international expert consensus statement was written by experts in the field who were chosen by the Heart Rhythm Society in collaboration with representatives from the American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Heart Association, Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society, European Heart Rhythm Association, and World Association for Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders (WASOG).

      Abbreviations:

      AF (atrial fibrillation), ARVC (arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy), AV (atrioventricular), CS (cardiac sarcoidosis), EMB (endomyocardial biopsy), ICD (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator), PES (programmed electrical stimulation), SVT (supraventricular tachycardia), VF (ventricular fibrillation), VT (ventricular tachycardia)

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Heart Rhythm
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • McGrath D.S.
        • Goh N.
        • Foley P.J.
        • du Bois R.M.
        Sarcoidosis: genes and microbes—soil or seed?.
        Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2001; 18: 149-164
        • Statement on sarcoidosis
        Joint Statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders (WASOG) adopted by the ATS Board of Directors and by the ERS Executive Committee, February 1999.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999; 160: 736-755
        • Morimoto T.
        • Azuma A.
        • Abe S.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in Japan.
        Eur Respir J. 2008; 31: 372-379
        • Hillerdal G.
        • Nou E.
        • Osterman K.
        • Schmekel B.
        Sarcoidosis: epidemiology and prognosis. A 15-year European study.
        Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984; 130: 29-32
        • Valeyre D.
        • Prasse A.
        • Nunes H.
        • Uzunhan Y.
        • Brillet P.Y.
        • Muller-Quernheim J.
        Sarcoidosis.
        Lancet. 2013; (September 30)
        • Newman L.S.
        • Rose C.S.
        • Maier L.A.
        Sarcoidosis.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 1224-1234
        • Grutters J.C.
        • van den Bosch J.M.
        Corticosteroid treatment in sarcoidosis.
        Eur Respir J. 2006; 28: 627-636
        • Israel H.L.
        • Gottlieb J.E.
        Outcome of the treatment for sarcoidosis.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 151: 920-921
        • Izumi T.
        Sarcoidosis in Kyoto (1963-1986).
        Sarcoidosis. 1988; 5: 142-146
        • Paramothayan N.S.
        • Lasserson T.J.
        • Jones P.W.
        Corticosteroids for pulmonary sarcoidosis.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; (CD001114)
        • Ayyala U.S.
        • Nair A.P.
        • Padilla M.L.
        Cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Clin Chest Med. 2008; 29 (ix): 493-508
        • Dubrey S.W.
        • Falk R.H.
        Diagnosis and management of cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010; 52: 336-346
        • Chapelon-Abric C.
        • de Zuttere D.
        • Duhaut P.
        • et al.
        Cardiac sarcoidosis: a retrospective study of 41 cases.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2004; 83: 315-334
        • Fleming H.A.
        • McMahon J.N.
        • McCarthy C.F.
        • Kelehan P.
        Sarcoid heart disease.
        Br Heart J. 1983; 50: 498
        • Matsui Y.
        • Iwai K.
        • Tachibana T.
        • et al.
        Clinicopathological study of fatal myocardial sarcoidosis.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976; 278: 455-469
        • Roberts W.C.
        • McAllister Jr, H.A.
        • Ferrans V.J.
        Sarcoidosis of the heart: a clinicopathologic study of 35 necropsy patients (group 1) and review of 78 previously described necropsy patients (group 11).
        Am J Med. 1977; 63: 86-108
        • Smedema J.P.
        • Snoep G.
        • van Kroonenburgh M.P.
        • et al.
        Cardiac involvement in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis assessed at two university medical centers in the Netherlands.
        Chest. 2005; 128: 30-35
        • Yazaki Y.
        • Isobe M.
        • Hiroe M.
        • et al.
        Prognostic determinants of long-term survival in Japanese patients with cardiac sarcoidosis treated with prednisone.
        Am J Cardiol. 2001; 88: 1006-1010
        • Uusimaa P.
        • Ylitalo K.
        • Anttonen O.
        • et al.
        Ventricular tachyarrhythmia as a primary presentation of sarcoidosis.
        Europace. 2008; 10: 760-766
        • Iwai K.
        • Tachibana T.
        • Takemura T.
        • Matsui Y.
        • Kitaichi M.
        • Kawabata Y.
        Pathological studies on sarcoidosis autopsy, I: epidemiological features of 320 cases in Japan.
        Acta Pathol Jpn. 1993; 43: 372-376
        • Iwai K.
        • Takemura T.
        • Kitaichi M.
        • Kawabata Y.
        • Matsui Y.
        Pathological studies on sarcoidosis autopsy, II: early change, mode of progression and death pattern.
        Acta Pathol Jpn. 1993; 43: 377-385
        • Perry A.
        • Vuitch F.
        Causes of death in patients with sarcoidosis: a morphologic study of 38 autopsies with clinicopathologic correlations.
        Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1995; 119: 167-172
        • Vignaux O.
        • Dhote R.
        • Duboc D.
        • et al.
        Detection of myocardial involvement in patients with sarcoidosis applying T2-weighted, contrast-enhanced, and cine magnetic resonance imaging: initial results of a prospective study.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2002; 26: 762-767
        • Patel M.R.
        • Cawley P.J.
        • Heitner J.F.
        • et al.
        Detection of myocardial damage in patients with sarcoidosis.
        Circulation. 2009; 120: 1969-1977
        • Mehta D.
        • Lubitz S.A.
        • Frankel Z.
        • et al.
        Cardiac involvement in patients with sarcoidosis: diagnostic and prognostic value of outpatient testing.
        Chest. 2008; 133: 1426-1435
        • Dhôte R.
        • Vignaux O.
        • Blanche P.
        • et al.
        [Value of MRI for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis].
        Rev Med Interne. 2003; 24: 151-157
        • Kim J.S.
        • Judson M.A.
        • Donnino R.
        • et al.
        Cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Am Heart J. 2009; 157: 9-21
        • Sekiguchi M.
        • Numao Y.
        • Imai M.
        • Furuie T.
        • Mikami R.
        Clinical and histopathological profile of sarcoidosis of the heart and acute idiopathic myocarditis: concepts through a study employing endomyocardial biopsy, I: sarcoidosis.
        Jpn Circ J. 1980; 44: 249-263
        • Sadek M.M.
        • Yung D.
        • Birnie D.H.
        • Beanlands R.S.
        • Nery P.B.
        Corticosteroid therapy for cardiac sarcoidosis: a systematic review.
        Can J Cardiol. 2013; 29: 1034-1041
        • Chiu C.Z.
        • Nakatani S.
        • Zhang G.
        • et al.
        Prevention of left ventricular remodeling by long-term corticosteroid therapy in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Am J Cardiol. 2005; 95: 143-146
        • Greulich S.
        • Deluigi C.C.
        • Gloekler S.
        • et al.
        CMR imaging predicts death and other adverse events in suspected cardiac sarcoidosis.
        JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013; 6: 501-511
        • Patel A.R.
        • Klein M.R.
        • Chandra S.
        • et al.
        Myocardial damage in patients with sarcoidosis and preserved left ventricular systolic function: an observational study.
        Eur J Heart Fail. 2011; 13: 1231-1237
      1. Judson MA. The WASOG Sarcoidosis Organ Assessment Instrument Investigators. The WASOG Sarcoidosis Organ Assessment Instrument: an update of a previous clinical tool. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diff Lung Dis. In press.

      2. Hiraga H, Yuwai K, Hiroe M, et al. Guideline for Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis: Study Report on Diffuse Pulmonary Diseases From the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare. Tokyo: Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1993;23–24

      3. Diagnostic standard and guidelines for sarcoidosis.
        Jpn J Sarcoidosis Granulomatous Disorders. 2007; 27: 89-102
        • Judson M.A.
        • Baughman R.P.
        • Teirstein A.S.
        • Terrin M.L.
        • Yeager Jr, H.
        Defining organ involvement in sarcoidosis: the ACCESS proposed instrument. ACCESS Research Group. A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis.
        Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 1999; 16: 75-86
        • Judson M.A.
        • Thompson B.W.
        • Rabin D.L.
        • et al.
        The diagnostic pathway to sarcoidosis.
        Chest. 2003; 123: 406-412
        • Ichinose A.
        • Otani H.
        • Oikawa M.
        • et al.
        MRI of cardiac sarcoidosis: basal and subepicardial localization of myocardial lesions and their effect on left ventricular function.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008; 191: 862-869
        • Cummings K.W.
        • Bhalla S.
        • Javidan-Nejad C.
        • Bierhals A.J.
        • Gutierrez F.R.
        • Woodard P.K.
        A pattern-based approach to assessment of delayed enhancement in nonischemic cardiomyopathy at MR imaging.
        Radiographics. 2009; 29: 89-103
        • Pellegrino D.
        • Bonab A.A.
        • Dragotakes S.C.
        • Pitman J.T.
        • Mariani G.
        • Carter E.A.
        Inflammation and infection: imaging properties of 18F-FDG-labeled white blood cells versus 18F-FDG.
        J Nucl Med. 2005; 46: 1522-1530
        • Okumura W.
        • Iwasaki T.
        • Toyama T.
        • et al.
        Usefulness of fasting 18F-FDG PET in identification of cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Nucl Med. 2004; 45: 1989-1998
        • Langah R.
        • Spicer K.
        • Gebregziabher M.
        • Gordon L.
        Effectiveness of prolonged fasting 18F-FDG PET-CT in the detection of cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Nucl Cardiol. 2009; 16: 801-810
        • Ishimaru S.
        • Tsujino I.
        • Takei T.
        • et al.
        Focal uptake on 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography images indicates cardiac involvement of sarcoidosis.
        Eur Heart J. 2005; 26: 1538-1543
        • Ardehali H.
        • Howard D.L.
        • Hariri A.
        • et al.
        A positive endomyocardial biopsy result for sarcoid is associated with poor prognosis in patients with initially unexplained cardiomyopathy.
        Am Heart J. 2005; 150: 459-463
        • Cooper L.T.
        • Baughman K.L.
        • Feldman A.M.
        • et al.
        The role of endomyocardial biopsy in the management of cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the European Society of Cardiology.
        Circulation. 2007; 116: 2216-2233
        • Nery P.B.
        • Keren A.
        • Healey J.
        • Leug E.
        • Beanlands R.S.
        • Birnie D.H.
        Isolated cardiac sarcoidosis: establishing the diagnosis with electroanatomic mapping-guided endomyocardial biopsy.
        Can J Cardiol. 2012; (December 13)
        • Kandolin R.
        • Lehtonen J.
        • Graner M.
        • et al.
        Diagnosing isolated cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Intern Med. 2011; (May 2)
        • Leone O.
        • Veinot J.P.
        • Angelini A.
        • et al.
        2011 consensus statement on endomyocardial biopsy from the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology and the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology.
        Cardiovasc pathol. 2012; 21: 245-274
        • Freeman A.M.
        • Curran-Everett D.
        • Weinberger H.D.
        • et al.
        Predictors of cardiac sarcoidosis using commonly available cardiac studies.
        Am J Cardiol. 2013; 112: 280-285
        • Schuller J.L.
        • Lowery C.M.
        • Zipse M.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic utility of signal-averaged electrocardiography for detection of cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2011; 16: 70-76
        • Schuller J.L.
        • Olson M.D.
        • Zipse M.M.
        • et al.
        Electrocardiographic characteristics in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis indicating cardiac involvement.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011; 22: 1243-1248
        • Kandolin R.
        • Lehtonen J.
        • Kupari M.
        Cardiac sarcoidosis and giant cell myocarditis as causes of atrioventricular block in young and middle-aged adults.
        Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011; 4: 303-309
      4. Nery PB, Beanlands RS, Nair G, et al. Middle aged patients with new onset atrioventricular block should be investigated for cardiac sarcoidosis. Heart Rhythm 2013 January 5;10:S447.

        • Nery P.B.
        • Mc Ardle B.A.
        • Redpath C.J.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of cardiac sarcoidosis in patients presenting with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia.
        Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013; (September 17)
        • Koplan B.A.
        • Soejima K.
        • Baughman K.
        • Epstein L.M.
        • Stevenson W.G.
        Refractory ventricular tachycardia secondary to cardiac sarcoid: electrophysiologic characteristics, mapping, and ablation.
        Heart Rhythm. 2006; 3: 924-929
        • Santucci P.A.
        • Morton J.B.
        • Picken M.M.
        • Wilber D.J.
        Electroanatomic mapping of the right ventricle in a patient with a giant epsilon wave, ventricular tachycardia, and cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004; 15: 1091-1094
        • Vasaiwala S.C.
        • Finn C.
        • Delpriore J.
        • et al.
        Prospective study of cardiac sarcoid mimicking arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009; 20: 473-476
        • Dechering D.G.
        • Kochhauser S.
        • Wasmer K.
        • et al.
        Electrophysiological characteristics of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac sarcoidosis versus arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
        Heart Rhythm. 2013; 10: 158-164
        • Steckman D.A.
        • Schneider P.M.
        • Schuller J.L.
        • et al.
        Utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate cardiac sarcoidosis from arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
        Am J Cardiol. 2012; 110: 575-579
        • Epstein A.E.
        • Dimarco J.P.
        • Ellenbogen K.A.
        • et al.
        ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: executive summary.
        Heart Rhythm. 2008; 5: 934-955
        • Epstein A.E.
        • Dimarco J.P.
        • Ellenbogen K.A.
        • et al.
        2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update incorporated into the ACCF/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.
        Circulation. 2013; 127: e283-e352
        • Erdmann E.
        [Angina pectoris, pathological stress EKG and a normal coronary angiogram].
        Internist (Berl). 1980; 21: 165-168
        • Okamoto H.
        • Mizuno K.
        • Ohtoshi E.
        Cutaneous sarcoidosis with cardiac involvement.
        Eur J Dermatol. 1999; 9: 466-469
        • Kato Y.
        • Morimoto S.
        • Uemura A.
        • Hiramitsu S.
        • Ito T.
        • Hishida H.
        Efficacy of corticosteroids in sarcoidosis presenting with atrioventricular block.
        Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2003; 20: 133-137
        • Banba K.
        • Kusano K.F.
        • Nakamura K.
        • et al.
        Relationship between arrhythmogenesis and disease activity in cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Heart Rhythm. 2007; 4: 1292-1299
        • Yodogawa K.
        • Seino Y.
        • Ohara T.
        • Takayama H.
        • Katoh T.
        • Mizuno K.
        Effect of corticosteroid therapy on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2011; 16: 140-147
        • Wann L.S.
        • Curtis A.B.
        • January C.T.
        • et al.
        2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (Updating the 2006 Guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 57: 223-242
        • Camm A.J.
        • Lip G.Y.
        • De C.R.
        • et al.
        2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: an update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation--developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association.
        Europace. 2012; 14: 1385-1413
        • Golwala H.
        • Dernaika T.
        Atrial fibrillation as the initial clinical manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis: a case report and review of the literature.
        J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown ). 2011; (January 19)
        • Viles-Gonzalez J.F.
        • Pastori L.
        • Fischer A.
        • Wisnivesky J.P.
        • Goldman M.G.
        • Mehta D.
        Supraventricular arrhythmias in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis prevalence, predictors, and clinical implications.
        Chest. 2013; 143: 1085-1090
        • Zipse M.M.
        • Schuller J.
        • Katz J.T.
        • et al.
        Atrial arrhythmias are common and arise from diverse mechanisms in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Heart Rhythm. 2013; 10: S309
        • Schuller J.L.
        • Zipse M.
        • Crawford T.
        • et al.
        Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012; 23: 925-929
        • Betensky B.P.
        • Tschabrunn C.M.
        • Zado E.S.
        • et al.
        Long-term follow-up of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.
        Heart Rhythm. 2012; 9: 884-891
        • Kron J.
        • Sauer W.
        • Schuller J.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of implantable cardiac defibrillators for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Europace. 2013; 15: 347-354
        • Namboodiri N.
        • Stiles M.K.
        • Young G.D.
        • Sanders P.
        Electrophysiological features of atrial flutter in cardiac sarcoidosis: a report of two cases.
        Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2012; 12: 284-289
        • Srivatsa U.N.
        • Rogers J.
        Sarcoidosis and atrial fibrillation: a rare association and interlink with inflammation.
        Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2012; 12: 290-291
        • Swigris J.J.
        • Olson A.L.
        • Huie T.J.
        • et al.
        Increased risk of pulmonary embolism among US decedents with sarcoidosis from 1988 to 2007.
        Chest. 2011; 140: 1261-1266
        • Echt D.S.
        • Liebson P.R.
        • Mitchell L.B.
        • et al.
        Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo: the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 781-788
        • Aliot E.M.
        • Stevenson W.G.
        • Almendral-Garrote J.M.
        • et al.
        EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias: developed in a partnership with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), a Registered Branch of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS); in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA).
        Heart Rhythm. 2009; 6: 886-933
        • Jefic D.
        • Joel B.
        • Good E.
        • et al.
        Role of radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in cardiac sarcoidosis: report from a multicenter registry.
        Heart Rhythm. 2009; 6: 189-195
        • Berte B.
        • Eyskens B.
        • Meyfroidt G.
        • Willems R.
        Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia in fulminant myocarditis.
        Europace. 2008; 10: 767-768
        • Tai Y.T.
        • Lau C.P.
        • Fong P.C.
        • Li J.P.
        • Lee K.L.
        Incessant automatic ventricular tachycardia complicating acute coxsackie B myocarditis.
        Cardiology. 1992; 80: 339-344
        • Stees C.S.
        • Khoo M.S.
        • Lowery C.M.
        • Sauer W.H.
        Ventricular tachycardia storm successfully treated with immunosuppression and catheter ablation in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010; (June 17)
        • Tselentakis E.V.
        • Woodford E.
        • Chandy J.
        • Gaudette G.R.
        • Saltman A.E.
        Inflammation effects on the electrical properties of atrial tissue and inducibility of postoperative atrial fibrillation.
        J Surg Res. 2006; 135: 68-75
        • Futamatsu H.
        • Suzuki J.
        • Adachi S.
        • et al.
        Utility of gallium-67 scintigraphy for evaluation of cardiac sarcoidosis with ventricular tachycardia.
        Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2006; 22: 443-448
        • Winters S.L.
        • Cohen M.
        • Greenberg S.
        • et al.
        Sustained ventricular tachycardia associated with sarcoidosis: assessment of the underlying cardiac anatomy and the prospective utility of programmed ventricular stimulation, drug therapy and an implantable antitachycardia device.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991; 18: 937-943
        • Furushima H.
        • Chinushi M.
        • Sugiura H.
        • Kasai H.
        • Washizuka T.
        • Aizawa Y.
        Ventricular tachyarrhythmia associated with cardiac sarcoidosis: its mechanisms and outcome.
        Clin Cardiol. 2004; 27: 217-222
        • Hiramitsu S.
        • Morimoto S.
        • Uemura A.
        • et al.
        National survey on status of steroid therapy for cardiac sarcoidosis in Japan.
        Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2005; 22: 210-213
        • Bogun F.M.
        • Desjardins B.
        • Good E.
        • et al.
        Delayed-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in nonischemic cardiomyopathy: utility for identifying the ventricular arrhythmia substrate.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 1138-1145
        • Kuhne M.
        • Abrams G.
        • Sarrazin J.F.
        • et al.
        Isolated potentials and pace-mapping as guides for ablation of ventricular tachycardia in various types of nonischemic cardiomyopathy.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010; 21: 1017-1023
        • Mehta D.
        • Mori N.
        • Goldbarg S.H.
        • Lubitz S.
        • Wisnivesky J.P.
        • Teirstein A.
        Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in silent cardiac sarcoidosis: role of programmed ventricular stimulation.
        Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011; 4: 43-48
        • Aizer A.
        • Stern E.H.
        • Gomes J.A.
        • Teirstein A.S.
        • Eckart R.E.
        • Mehta D.
        Usefulness of programmed ventricular stimulation in predicting future arrhythmic events in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        Am J Cardiol. 2005; 96: 276-282
        • Kramer C.M.
        • Barkhausen J.
        • Flamm S.D.
        • Kim R.J.
        • Nagel E.
        Standardized cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocols 2013 update.
        J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2013; 15: 91
      5. Blankstein R, Osborne M, Naya M, et al. Cardiac positron emission tomography enhances prognostic assessments of patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;October 1.

        • Mc Ardle B.A.
        • Birnie D.H.
        • Klein R.
        • et al.
        Is there an association between clinical presentation and the location and extent of myocardial involvement of cardiac sarcoidosis as assessed by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography?.
        Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013; 6: 617-626
        • Bardy G.H.
        • Lee K.L.
        • Mark D.B.
        • et al.
        Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure.
        N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 225-237
        • Schuller J.L.
        • Lowery C.M.
        • Weinberger H.D.
        • Sauer W.H.
        Fluctuation in ventricular sensing leading to underdetection of ventricular fibrillation in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2009; (July 23)
        • Hamzeh N.Y.
        • Wamboldt F.S.
        • Weinberger H.D.
        Management of cardiac sarcoidosis in the United States: a Delphi study.
        Chest. 2012; 141: 154-162
        • Osborne M.T.
        • Hulten E.A.
        • Singh A.
        • et al.
        Reduction in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on serial cardiac positron emission tomography is associated with improved left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
        J Nucl Cardiol. 2013; (December 3)