Nearly one-third of all major congenital anomalies are heart defects, with an estimated 9 per 1000 live births afflicted by congenital heart disease (CHD) worldwide.
1Remarkable advances in care have resulted in impressive gains in survival such that more than 90% of children with CHD in developed countries today are expected to survive to adulthood.
- van der Linde D.
- Konings E.E.
- Slager M.A.
- Witsenburg M.
- Helbing W.A.
- Takkenberg J.J.
- Roos-Hesselink J.W.
Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 2241-2247
2Consequently, the past decades have witnessed historical shifts in population demographics, as adults now outnumber children with CHD. Population-based estimates indicate that there are currently more than 1 million adults with CHD in the United States alone, more than 100,000 in Canada, and 1.8 million in Europe.
- Khairy P.
- Ionescu-Ittu R.
- Mackie A.S.
- Abrahamowicz M.
- Pilote L.
- Marelli A.J.
Changing mortality in congenital heart disease.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 1149-1157
- Marelli A.J.
- Mackie A.S.
- Ionescu-Ittu R.
- Rahme E.
- Pilote L.
Congenital heart disease in the general population: changing prevalence and age distribution.
Circulation. 2007; 115: 163-172
- Moons P.
- Engelfriet P.
- Kaemmerer H.
- Meijboom F.J.
- Oechslin E.
- Mulder B.J.
Delivery of care for adult patients with congenital heart disease in Europe: results from the Euro Heart Survey.
Eur Heart J. 2006; 27: 1324-1330
5Rhythm disorders, which span the entire spectrum of bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias, are among the most prominent complications encountered by adults with CHD.
- Go A.S.
- Mozaffarian D.
- Roger V.L.
- et al.
Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
Circulation. 2013; 127: e6-e245
6Arrhythmias range in symptomatology and significance, from inconsequential and benign to poorly tolerated and potentially fatal. Taken together, arrhythmias are a leading cause of morbidity, impaired quality of life, and mortality in adults with CHD.
- Walsh E.P.
- Cecchin F.
Arrhythmias in adult patients with congenital heart disease.
Circulation. 2007; 115: 534-545
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Heart Rhythm
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 2241-2247
- Changing mortality in congenital heart disease.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 1149-1157
- Congenital heart disease in the general population: changing prevalence and age distribution.Circulation. 2007; 115: 163-172
- Delivery of care for adult patients with congenital heart disease in Europe: results from the Euro Heart Survey.Eur Heart J. 2006; 27: 1324-1330
- Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association.Circulation. 2013; 127: e6-e245
- Arrhythmias in adult patients with congenital heart disease.Circulation. 2007; 115: 534-545
- EP challenges in adult congenital heart disease.Heart Rhythm. 2008; 5: 1464-1472
- ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: executive summary.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 1890-1947
- Methodology Manual and Policies From the ACCF/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines.XXXX: XX: American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association. 2010; : 1-88
- Summary of recommendations—care of the adult with congenital heart disease.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37: 1167-1169
- Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: executive summary.Can J Cardiol. 2010; 26: 143-150
- ESC guidelines for the management of grown-up congenital heart disease (new version 2010).Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2915-2957
- Is it safe to perform cardiac catheterizations on adults with congenital heart disease in a pediatric catheterization laboratory?.Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2005; 66: 414-419
- Interventional electrophysiology in patients with congenital heart disease.Circulation. 2007; 115: 3224-3234
- Update on interventional electrophysiology in congenital heart disease: evolving solutions for complex hearts.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2013; 6: 1032-1040
- The anesthesiologist’s role in adults with congenital heart disease.Cardiol Clin. 2006; 24 (vi): 571-585
- Care of the adult congenital heart disease patient in the United States: a summary of the current system.Pediatr Cardiol. 2010; 31: 511-514
- 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society training standards and maintenance of competency in adult clinical cardiac electrophysiology.Can J Cardiol. 2011; 27: 859-861
- ACCF/AHA/AAP recommendations for training in pediatric cardiology. Task force 4: recommendations for training guidelines in pediatric cardiac electrophysiology endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 46: 1391-1395
- Recommendations for advanced fellowship training in clinical pediatric and congenital electrophysiology: a report from the training and credentialing committee of the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society.Heart Rhythm. 2013; 10: 775-781
- Task force 6: training in specialized electrophysiology, cardiac pacing, and arrhythmia management endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 374-380
- Comparison of accuracy of diagnosis of congenital heart disease by history and physical examination versus echocardiography.Am J Cardiol. 2002; 89: 1329-1331
- Clinical use of electrocardiography in adults with congenital heart disease.Circulation. 2007; 116: 2734-2746
- ACC/AHA guidelines for ambulatory electrocardiography: executive summary and recommendations.Circulation. 1999; 100: 886-893
- Utility of ambulatory monitoring in patients with congenital heart disease.Am J Cardiol. 2013; 111: 723-730
- Identifying arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease by 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography.Pediatr Cardiol. 2012; 33: 591-595
- Atrial response to ventricular antitachycardia pacing discriminates mechanism of 1:1 atrioventricular tachycardia.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005; 16: 601-605
- Single-centre use of implantable loop recorders in patients with congenital heart disease.Europace. 2009; 11: 303-307
- Diagnostic tools for arrhythmia detection in adults with congenital heart disease and heart failure.Heart Fail Clin. 2014; 10: 57-67
- Telemonitoring with implantable electronic devices in young patients with congenital heart diseases.Europace. 2012; 14: 1030-1037
- Differentiation of ventricular and supraventricular tachycardias based on the analysis of the first postpacing interval after sequential anti-tachycardia pacing in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients.Heart Rhythm. 2007; 4: 316-322
- Postoperative arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease: incidence and risk factors.Int J Cardiol. 2013; 169: 139-144
- ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 48: e247-e346
- Moderate and chronic hemodynamic overload of sheep atria induces reversible cellular electrophysiologic abnormalities and atrial vulnerability.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44: 1918-1926
- Electrophysiology and adult congenital heart disease: advances and options.Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2011; 53: 281-292
- Burden of coronary artery disease in adults with congenital heart disease and its relation to congenital and traditional heart risk factors.Am J Cardiol. 2009; 103: 1445-1450
- Cardiovascular outcomes after the arterial switch operation for d-transposition of the great arteries.Circulation. 2013; 127: 331-339
- Value of programmed ventricular stimulation after tetralogy of Fallot repair: a multicenter study.Circulation. 2004; 109: 1994-2000
- 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update incorporated into the ACCF/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013; 61: e6-e75
- Value of programmed ventricular stimulation in patients with congenital heart disease.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1999; 10: 1033-1044
- Sudden death and defibrillators in transposition of the great arteries with intra-atrial baflles: a multicenter study.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2008; 1: 250-257
- Long-term survival, modes of death, and predictors of mortality in patients with Fontan surgery.Circulation. 2008; 117: 85-92
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in tetralogy of Fallot.Circulation. 2008; 117: 363-370
- Programmed ventricular stimulation for risk stratification in patients with tetralogy of Fallot: a Bayesian perspective.Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2007; 4: 292-293
- Efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs in adults with congenital heart disease and supraventricular tachycardias.Am J Cardiol. 2013; 112: 1461-1467
- Antiarrhythmics for maintaining sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; : CD005049
- Focused 2012 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines: recommendations for stroke prevention and rate/rhythm control.Can J Cardiol. 2012; 28: 125-136
- Management of patients with atrial fibrillation (compilation of 2006 ACCF/AHA/ESC and 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS recommendations): a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013; 61: 1935-1944
- Acute and long-term outcomes of catheter ablation using remote magnetic navigation in patients with congenital heart disease.Am J Cardiol. 2012; 110: 409-414
- Outcome of intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia catheter ablation in adults with congenital heart disease: negative impact of age and complex atrial surgery.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 1589-1596
- Prospective trial of electroanatomically guided, irrigated catheter ablation of atrial tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.Heart Rhythm. 2005; 2: 700-705
- Frequency of late recurrence of intra-atrial reentry tachycardia after radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with congenital heart disease.Am J Cardiol. 2003; 92: 879-881
- Arrhythmias in patients with congenital heart disease.Card Electrophysiol Rev. 2002; 6: 422-430
- Electroanatomic mapping of entrained and exit zones in patients with repaired congenital heart disease and intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia.Circulation. 2001; 103: 2060-2065
- Radiofrequency catheter ablation of tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.Pediatr Cardiol. 2000; 21: 557-575
- 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused updates incorporated into the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 57: e101-e198
- Amiodarone-associated thyroid dysfunction: risk factors in adults with congenital heart disease.Circulation. 1999; 100: 149-154
- A risk prediction index for amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis in adults with congenital heart disease.J Thyroid Res. 2012; 2012: 210529
- Dofetilide for atrial arrhythmias in congenital heart disease: a multicenter study.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2009; 32: 1313-1318
- Clinical efficacy of dofetilide for the treatment of atrial tachyarrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease.Congenit Heart Dis. 2014; (9:221–227)
- Endogenous catecholamine levels and function of the systemic right ventricle following atrial switch.Int J Cardiol. 2010; 138: 81-86
- Sotalol for atrial tachycardias after surgery for congenital heart disease.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1997; 20: 2125
- The Pediatric Electrophysiology Group. Proarrhythmia, cardiac arrest and death in young patients receiving encainide and flecainide.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991; 18: 356-365
- Preliminary report: effect of encainide and flecainide on mortality in a randomized trial of arrhythmia suppression after myocardial infarction.N Engl J Med. 1989; 321: 406-412
- Effect of the antiarrhythmic agent moricizine on survival after myocardial infarction.N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 227-233
- Antiarrhythmic drug therapy and cardiac mortality in atrial fibrillation.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 20: 527-532
- Improving survival for patients with atrial fibrillation and advanced heart failure.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 28: 1458-1463
- Dronedarone in high-risk permanent atrial fibrillation.N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 2268-2276
- Increased mortality after dronedarone therapy for severe heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2678-2687
- Outcome of direct current cardioversion for atrial arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease.Int J Cardiol. 2012; 154: 270-274
- Cardioversion guided by transesophageal echocardiography: the ACUTE Pilot Study. A randomized, controlled trial. Assessment of Cardioversion Using Transesophageal Echocardiography.Ann Intern Med. 1997; 126: 200-209
- Transesophageal echocardiographically facilitated early cardioversion from atrial fibrillation using short-term anticoagulation: final results of a prospective 4.5-year study.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25: 1354-1361
- Cerebrovascular accidents in adult patients with congenital heart disease.Heart. 2010; 96: 1223-1226
- Risk factors for stroke and efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: analysis of pooled data from five randomized controlled trials.Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154: 1449-1457
- Atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation, and stroke.Am J Cardiol. 1996; 77: 38A-44A
- Primary stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: implementing the clinical trial findings.Ann Pharmacother. 1997; 31: 1187-1196
- Oral anticoagulants vs aspirin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: an individual patient meta-analysis.JAMA. 2002; 288: 2441-2448
- Thromboembolic complications in Fontan patients: population-based prevalence and exploration of the etiology.Pediatr Cardiol. 2013; 34: 262-272
- Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.N Engl J Med. 2013; 369: 2093-2104
- Selecting patients with atrial fibrillation for anticoagulation: stroke risk stratification in patients taking aspirin.Circulation. 2004; 110: 2287-2292
- The HAS-BLED score has better prediction accuracy for major bleeding than the CHADS or CHADS-VASc scores in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013; 62: 2199-2204
- Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 1139-1151
- Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 981-992
- Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 883-891
- Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with mechanical heart valves.N Engl J Med. 2013; 369: 1206-1214
- Radiofrequency catheter ablation of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients with congenital heart disease: results and technical considerations.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993; 22: 883-890
- Radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways associated with congenital heart disease including heterotaxy syndrome.Am J Cardiol. 1993; 72: 689-693
- Radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.Int J Cardiol. 1995; 50: 143-151
- Outcomes of radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.Heart Rhythm. 2004; 1: 168-173
- Electroanatomical mapping for visualization of atrial activation in patients with incisional atrial tachycardias.Eur Heart J. 2001; 22: 237-246
- Electroanatomical mapping and ablation of the substrate supporting intraatrial reentrant tachycardia after palliation for complex congenital heart disease.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998; 21: 1810-1819
- Ablation of “incisional” reentrant atrial tachycardia complicating surgery for congenital heart disease: use of entrainment to define a critical isthmus of conduction.Circulation. 1996; 93: 502-512
- Ablation of atrial tachycardia after surgery for congenital and acquired heart disease using an electroanatomic mapping system: which circuits to expect in which substrate?.Heart Rhythm. 2005; 2: 64-72
- Importance of ablating all potential right atrial flutter circuits in postcardiac surgery patients.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44: 409-414
- Importance of atrial flutter isthmus in postoperative intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia.Circulation. 2000; 102: 1283-1289
- Catheter ablation of clinical intraatrial reentrant tachycardias resulting from previous atrial surgery: localizing and transecting the critical isthmus.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 28: 411-417
- Radiofrequency catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia substrates after mustard and senning operations for d-transposition of the great arteries.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 35: 428-441
- Efficacy of radiofrequency ablation for control of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 30: 1032-1038
- Intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia after palliation of congenital heart disease: characterization of multiple macroreentrant circuits using fluoroscopically based three-dimensional endocardial mapping.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997; 8: 259-270
- Long-term outcome after ablative therapy of postoperative atrial tachyarrhythmia in patients with congenital heart disease and characteristics of atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrences.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010; 3: 148-154
- Atrial tachycardias in patients with congenital heart disease: a minimally invasive simplified approach in the use of three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping.Europace. 2011; 13: 689-695
- Multiple accessory pathways in the young: the impact of structural heart disease.Am Heart J. 2013; 165: 87-92
- Ablation of incisional atrial tachycardias using a three-dimensional nonfluoroscopic mapping system.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2001; 24: 1653-1659
- Clinical application of electroanatomical mapping in the characterization of “incisional” atrial tachycardias.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003; 26: 420-425
- Influence of patient factors and ablative technologies on outcomes of radiofrequency ablation of intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 39: 1827-1835
- Irrigated-tip catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients late after surgery of congenital heart disease.Heart Rhythm. 2004; 1: 268-275
- Catheter tip cooling during radiofrequency ablation of intra-atrial reentry: effects on power, temperature, and impedance.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002; 13: 783-787
- Ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia in tricuspid atresia.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004; 15: 719-722
- Catheter ablation of arrhythmias in Ebstein’s anomaly: a multicenter study.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011; 22: 1391-1396
- Partial atrioventricular canal defect with inverted atrioventricular nodal input into an inferiorly displaced atrioventricular node.Heart Rhythm. 2007; 4: 355-358
- Pulmonary vein isolation for the treatment of drug-refractory atrial fibrillation in adults with congenital heart disease.Congenit Heart Dis. 2012; 7: 392-399
- The utility of preoperative electrophysiological studies and reveal implantation in patients with Ebstein’s anomaly undergoing Cone procedure.Heart Rhythm. 2014; (182–186)
- Pediatric radiofrequency catheter ablation: results of initial 100 consecutive cases including congenital heart anomalies.J Korean Med Sci. 2005; 20: 740-746
- Atrioventricular junction ablation and pacemaker therapy in patients with drug-resistant atrial tachyarrhythmias after the Fontan operation.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005; 16: 24-29
- Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease using cooled radiofrequency energy: results of a prospective multicenter study.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 35: 1905-1914
- Ventricular tachycardia late after repair of congenital heart disease: efficacy of combination therapy with radiofrequency catheter ablation and class III antiarrhythmic agents and long-term outcome.J Electrocardiol. 2006; 39: 219-224
- Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia after repair of congenital heart disease: electroanatomic identification of the critical right ventricular isthmus.Circulation. 2007; 116: 2241-2252
- Primary sick sinus syndrome as an indication for chronic pacemaker therapy in young adults: incidence, clinical features, and long-term evaluation.Am Heart J. 1982; 103: 338
- Chronic sinus node disease: natural course and indications for pacing.Eur Heart J. 1981; 2: 455-459
- A double-blind study of submaximal exercise tolerance and variation in paced rate in atrial synchronous compared to activity sensor modulated ventricular pacing.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1992; 15: 905-915
- Is dual-chamber programming inferior to single-chamber programming in an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator? Results of the INTRINSIC RV (Inhibition of Unnecessary RV Pacing With AVSH in ICDs) study.Circulation. 2007; 115: 9-16
- A new paradigm for physiologic ventricular pacing.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47: 282-288
- Appropriate and inappropriate ventricular therapies, quality of life, and mortality among primary and secondary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: results from the Pacing Fast VT REduces Shock ThErapies (PainFREE Rx II) trial.Circulation. 2005; 111: 2898-2905
- Reducing unnecessary right ventricular pacing with the managed ventricular pacing mode in patients with sinus node disease and AV block.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006; 29: 697-705
- Minimizing ventricular pacing to reduce atrial fibrillation in sinus-node disease.N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 1000-1008
- Indications for permanent cardiac pacing in first-degree AV block: class I, II, or III?.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1996; 19: 747-751
- Pseudo-pacemaker syndrome following inadvertent fast pathway ablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1993; 4: 178-182
- Natural history of chronic second-degree atrioventricular nodal block.Circulation. 1981; 63: 1043-1049
- Recommendations for pacemaker prescription for symptomatic bradycardia: Report of a working party of the British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group.Br Heart J. 1991; 66: 185-191
- Atrioventricular block (first of two parts).N Engl J Med. 1975; 292: 462-465
- Isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block in adult life: a prospective study.Circulation. 1995; 92: 442-449
- Presentation and prognosis of complete atrioventricular block in childhood, according to maternal antibody status.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 48: 1682-1687
- Congenital heart block: development of late-onset cardiomyopathy, a previously underappreciated sequela.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37: 238-242
- Complete atrioventricular block after valvular heart surgery and the timing of pacemaker implantation.Am J Cardiol. 2001; 87 (A10): 649-651
- Indications, effectiveness, and long-term dependency in permanent pacing after cardiac surgery.Am J Cardiol. 1997; 80: 1309-1313
- Development and validation of a simple risk score to predict the need for permanent pacing after cardiac valve surgery.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41: 795-801
- Epicardial pacemaker implantation and follow-up in patients with a single ventricle after the Fontan operation.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001; 121: 804-811
- Bradycardia-mediated tachyarrhythmias in congenital heart disease and responses to chronic pacing at physiologic rates.Am J Cardiol. 1990; 65: 488-493
- Efficacy of atrial antitachycardia pacing using the Medtronic AT500 pacemaker in patients with congenital heart disease.Am J Cardiol. 2003; 92: 871-876
- Benefits and potential risks of atrial antitachycardia pacing after repair of congenital heart disease.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1995; 18: 1005-1016
- Atrial antitachycardia pacing in children and young adults.Am Heart J. 1991; 122: 844-849
- Atrial antitachycardia pacing in patients with supraventricular tachycardia: clinical experience with the Intertach pacemaker.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1990; 13: 1948-1954
- Use of ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring to identify high-risk patients with congenital complete heart block.N Engl J Med. 1987; 316: 835-839
- Congenital complete heart block in patients without anatomic cardiac defects.Am Heart J. 1989; 118: 1193-1198
- Survival in sinoatrial disorder (sick-sinus syndrome).Br Med J. 1980; 280: 139-141
- Prognosis for patients with congenital heart disease and postoperative intraventricular conduction defects.Circulation. 1978; 57: 867-870
- Transvenous pacing leads and systemic thromboemboli in patients with intracardiac shunts: a multicenter study.Circulation. 2006; 113: 2391-2397
- Results of a multicenter retrospective implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry of pediatric and congenital heart disease patients.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 1685-1691
- Implications of implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in congenital heart disease and pediatrics.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004; 15: 72-76
- The Pediatric Electrophysiology Society. Sudden cardiac death and the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in pediatric patients.Circulation. 1993; 87: 800-807
- Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in adults with congenital heart disease: who is at risk of shocks?.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012; 5: 101-110
- Outcomes after late reoperation in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: the impact of arrhythmia and arrhythmia surgery.Ann Thorac Surg. 2006; 81 (discussion 1793): 1786-1793
- Efficacy of hemodynamic-based management of tachyarrhythmia after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.Circ J. 2012; 76: 2855-2862
- Noncontact mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation of fast and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 50: 2162-2168
- Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 225-237
- Prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 2151-2158
- Implantable defibrillators for the prevention of mortality in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.JAMA. 2004; 292: 2874-2879
- Left ventricular dysfunction is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in adults late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 40: 1675-1680
- Should patients with congenital heart disease and a systemic ventricular ejection fraction less than 30% undergo prophylactic implantation of an ICD? Patients with congenital heart disease and a systemic ventricular ejection fraction less than 30% should undergo prophylactic implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2008; 1: 298-306
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot.Europace. 2008; 10: 926-930
- Risk factors for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a multicentre study.Lancet. 2000; 356: 975-981
- Arrhythmia burden in adults with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot: a multi-institutional study.Circulation. 2010; 122: 868-875
- Contemporary predictors of death and sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot enrolled in the INDICATOR cohort.Heart. 2014; 100: 247-253
- Electrocardiographic markers of late sudden death risk in postoperative tetralogy of Fallot children.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997; 8: 1349-1356
- Ventricular fibrosis suggested by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and its relationship to adverse markers of clinical outcome.Circulation. 2006; 113: 405-413
- Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in adults after a Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries.Eur Heart J. 2009; 30: 1873-1879
- Atrial baffle procedures for complete transposition of the great arteries: natural course of sinus node dysfunction and risk factors for dysrhythmias and sudden death.Z Kardiol. 1994; 83: 933-938
- Predictors of sudden cardiac death after Mustard or Senning repair for transposition of the great arteries.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44: 1095-1102
- Should patients with congenital heart disease and a systemic ventricular ejection fraction less than 30% undergo prophylactic implantation of an ICD? Implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation guidelines based solely on left ventricular ejection fraction do not apply to adults with congenital heart disease.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2008; 1 (discussion 316): 307-316
- Long-term outcome in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries: a multi-institutional study.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 36: 255-261
- Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study (CIDS) : a randomized trial of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator against amiodarone.Circulation. 2000; 101: 1297-1302
- The use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in pediatric patients awaiting heart transplantation.J Card Fail. 2003; 9: 375-379
- Ventricular arrhythmias in the absence of structural heart disease.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 59: 1733-1744
- Arrhythmias in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2012; 55: 180-186
- Causes and circumstances of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013; 188: 365-369
- Resynchronization therapy in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients: an international multicenter study.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 46: 2277-2283
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy (and multisite pacing) in pediatrics and congenital heart disease: five years experience in a single institution.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009; 20: 58-65
- Cardiac resynchronisation therapy in paediatric and congenital heart disease: differential effects in various anatomical and functional substrates.Heart. 2009; 95: 1165-1171
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy in congenital heart disease.Int J Cardiol. 2006; 109: 160-168
- Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 2140-2150
- The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 1539-1549
- Randomized trial of cardiac resynchronization in mildly symptomatic heart failure patients and in asymptomatic patients with left ventricular dysfunction and previous heart failure symptoms.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 1834-1843
- Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events.N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 1329-1338
- Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for mild-to-moderate heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2010; 363: 2385-2395
- Cardiac resynchronization in chronic heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 1845-1853
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy: a novel adjunct to the treatment and prevention of systemic right ventricular failure.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44: 1927-1931
- Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on echocardiographic indices, functional capacity, and clinical outcomes of patients with a systemic right ventricle.Europace. 2009; 11: 184-1890
- Acute hemodynamic benefits of biventricular and single-site systemic ventricular pacing in patients with a systemic right ventricle.Heart Rhythm. 2013; 10: 676-682
- Effects of nonsystemic ventricular pacing in patients with transposition of the great arteries and atrial redirection.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012; 23: 766-770
- The deleterious consequences of right ventricular apical pacing: time to seek alternate site pacing.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006; 29: 298-315
- Left ventricular dysfunction after long-term right ventricular apical pacing in the young.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37: 2093-2100
- Detrimental ventricular remodeling in patients with congenital complete heart block and chronic right ventricular apical pacing.Circulation. 2004; 110: 3766-3772
- Altered cardiac histology following apical right ventricular pacing in patients with congenital atrioventricular block.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1999; 22: 1372-1377
- Ventricular function and long-term pacing in children with congenital complete atrioventricular block.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007; 18: 373-377
- Predictors of left ventricular remodelling and failure in right ventricular pacing in the young.Eur Heart J. 2009; 30: 1097-1104
- Acute hemodynamic benefit of left ventricular apex pacing in children.Ann Thorac Surg. 2005; 79: 932-936
- Dilated cardiomyopathy following right ventricular pacing for AV block in young patients: resolution after upgrading to biventricular pacing systems.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006; 17: 1068-1071
- Dual-chamber pacing or ventricular backup pacing in patients with an implantable defibrillator: the Dual Chamber and VVI Implantable Defibrillator (DAVID) Trial.JAMA. 2002; 288: 3115-3123
- Predicting hyperresponse among pacemaker-dependent nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients upgraded to cardiac resynchronization.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011; 22: 905-911
- Effect of long-term resynchronization therapy on left ventricular remodeling in pacemaker patients upgraded to biventricular devices.Am J Cardiol. 2009; 103: 1280-1284
- Impact of the permanent ventricular pacing site on left ventricular function in children: a retrospective multicentre survey.Heart. 2011; 97: 2051-2055
- Differential effects of the site of permanent epicardial pacing on left ventricular synchrony and function in the young: implications for lead placement.Europace. 2009; 11: 1654-1659
- Preserved cardiac synchrony and function with single-site left ventricular epicardial pacing during mid-term follow-up in paediatric patients.Europace. 2009; 11: 1168-1676
- Permanent cardiac pacing in children: choosing the optimal pacing site: a multicenter study.Circulation. 2013; 127: 613-623
- Left ventricular-based cardiac stimulation post AV nodal ablation evaluation (the PAVE study).J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005; 16: 1160-1165
- Chronic left ventricular pacing preserves left ventricular function in children.Pediatr Cardiol. 2009; 30: 125-132
- Beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in chronically right ventricular paced patients with mild cardiomyopathy.Europace. 2010; 12: 223-229
- Successful cardiac resynchronization with single-site left ventricular pacing in children.Int J Cardiol. 2009; 136: 136-143
- Electrical resynchronization: a novel therapy for the failing right ventricle.Circulation. 2003; 107: 2287-2289
- Resynchronization pacing is a useful adjunct to the management of acute heart failure after surgery for congenital heart defects.Am J Cardiol. 2001; 88: 145-152
- Biventricular stimulation improves right and left ventricular function after tetralogy of Fallot repair: acute animal and clinical studies.Heart Rhythm. 2010; 7: 344-350
- Biventricular pacing in patients with tetralogy of Fallot: non-invasive epicardial mapping and clinical impact.Int J Cardiol. 2013; 163: 170-174
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and a QRS complex <120 milliseconds: the evaluation of resynchronization therapy for heart failure (LESSER-EARTH) trial.Circulation. 2013; 127: 873-881
- Management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in end-of-life care.Ann Intern Med. 2004; 141: 835-838
- J. Maxwell Chamberlain Memorial Paper for congenital heart surgery. 111 Fontan conversions with arrhythmia surgery: surgical lessons and outcomes.Ann Thorac Surg. 2007; 84 (discussion 1465–1466): 1457-1465
- The surgical treatment of concomitant atrial arrhythmias during redo cardiac operations.Ann Thorac Surg. 2012; 94 (discussion 1900): 1894-1899
- Sustained ventricular tachycardia in adult patients late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 30: 1368-1373
- Reoperative multivalve surgery in adult congenital heart disease.Ann Thorac Surg. 2013; 95: 1383-1389
- Outcomes in adult congenital heart surgery: analysis of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011; 142: 1090-1097
- Surgery in adults with congenital heart disease.Circulation. 2011; 124: 2195-2201
- PACES/HRS expert consensus statement on the management of the asymptomatic young patient with a Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW, ventricular preexcitation) electrocardiographic pattern.Heart Rhythm. 2012; 9: 1006-1024
- Radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways associated with congenital heart disease.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1997; 20: 2077
- The role of concomitant arrhythmia surgery in patients undergoing repair of congenital heart disease.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2008; 31: S13-S16
- How many atrial fibrillation ablation candidates have an underlying supraventricular tachycardia previously unknown? Efficacy of isolated triggering arrhythmia ablation.Europace. 2010; 12: 1707-1712
- Modification of the Maze procedure for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation, II: Surgical technique of the Maze III procedure.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995; 110: 485-495
- Comparison of anatomic isthmus block with the modified right atrial Maze procedure for late atrial tachycardia in Fontan patients.Circulation. 2002; 106: 575-579
- Clinical outcomes of Fontan conversion surgery with and without associated arrhythmia intervention.Int J Cardiol. 2009; 137: 260-266
- Arrhythmia recurrence in adult patients with single ventricle physiology following surgical Fontan conversion.Congenit Heart Dis. 2010; 5: 430-434
- Extracardiac conduit with a limited Maze procedure for the failing Fontan with atrial tachycardias.Ann Thorac Surg. 2002; 74: 1992-1997
- Maze procedure in single ventricle patients.Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu. 2008; : 44-48
- Intermediate to long-term results of radiofrequency modified Maze procedure as an adjunct to open-heart surgery.Ann Thorac Surg. 2008; 86: 1409-1414
- The CURE-AF trial: a prospective, multicenter trial of irrigated radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation during concomitant cardiac surgery.Heart Rhythm. 2014; 11: 39-45
- Ablation of atrial fibrillation with concomitant cardiac surgery.Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007; 19: 25-32
- Surgical Maze procedure as a treatment for atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Cardiovasc Ther. 2010; 28: 311-326
- Meta-analysis of clinical outcomes of maze-related surgical procedures for medically refractory atrial fibrillation.Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005; 28: 724-730
- Atrial tachyarrhythmias and the Cox-Maze procedure in congenital heart disease.Congenit Heart Dis. 2013; 8: 434-439
- Right-sided Maze procedure for atrial tachyarrhythmias in congenital heart disease.Ann Thorac Surg. 2006; 81 (discussion 1784–1785): 1780-1784
- Ventricular tachycardia after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot: results of intraoperative mapping studies.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 20: 648
- Intraoperative electroanatomic mapping.Ann Thorac Surg. 2012; 93: 1285-1288
- Modification to the Fontan procedure for the prophylaxis of intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia: short-term results of a prospective randomized blinded trial.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004; 127: 721-729
- Right-sided Maze procedure for right atrial arrhythmias in congenital heart disease.Ann Thorac Surg. 1998; 65 (discussion 153–154): 149-153
- Surgical advances in the treatment of adults with congenital heart disease.Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009; 21: 565-572
- When should prophylactic Maze procedure be considered in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery?.Ann Thorac Surg. 2010; 89: 1395-1401
- Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Study (LAAOS): results of a randomized controlled pilot study of left atrial appendage occlusion during coronary bypass surgery in patients at risk for stroke.Am Heart J. 2005; 150: 288-293
- The proarrhythmic effect of incomplete pulmotricuspid isthmus ablation in a patient with sarcoid-related ventricular tachycardia?.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008; 19: 869-872
Published online: May 08, 2014
© 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.