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Lower sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ threshold for triggering afterdepolarizations in diabetic rat hearts

Published:November 07, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.11.001

      Background

      Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases arrhythmia risk through incompletely elucidated mechanisms. Ventricular arrhythmias could be initiated by delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) resulting from elevated spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release (SR Ca2+ leak).

      Objective

      The purpose of this study was to test the role of DADs and SR Ca2+ leak in triggering arrhythmias in T2D hearts.

      Methods

      We compared rats with late-onset T2D that display pancreatic and cardiac phenotypes similar to those in humans with T2D (HIP rats) and their nondiabetic littermates (wild type [WT]).

      Results

      HIP rats showed higher propensity for premature ventricular complexes and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, whereas HIP myocytes displayed more frequent DADs and had lower SR Ca2+ content than WT. However, the threshold SR Ca2+ at which depolarizing transient inward currents (Itis) are generated was also significantly decreased in HIP myocytes and was below the actual SR Ca2+ load, which explains the increased DAD incidence despite reduced Ca2+ in SR. In agreement with these findings, Ca2+ spark frequency was augmented in myocytes from HIP vs WT rats, which suggests activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in HIP hearts. Indeed, RyR phosphorylation (by CaMKII and protein kinase A) and oxidation are enhanced in HIP hearts, whereas there is no RyR O-GlcNAcylation in either HIP or control hearts. CaMKII inhibition dissipated the difference in Ca2+ spark frequency between HIP and WT myocytes.

      Conclusion

      The threshold SR Ca2+ for generating depolarizing Itis is lower in T2D because of RyR activation after hyperphosphorylation and oxidation, which favors the occurrence of DADs despite low SR Ca2+ loads.

      Keywords

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