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- 2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation.Heart Rhythm. 2017; 14: e275-e444
- Comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy and radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2010; 303: 333-340
- Effect of catheter ablation vs antiarrhythmic drug therapy on mortality, stroke, bleeding, and cardiac arrest among patients with atrial fibrillation: the CABANA randomized clinical trial.JAMA. 2019; 321: 1261-1274
- Six year follow-up after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a palliation more than a true cure.Am J Cardiol. 2012; 109: 1179-1186
- Clinical outcome of catheter ablation in patients with nonparoxysmal atrial fibrillation: results of 3-year follow-up.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012; 5: 514-520
- The Cox-Maze procedure for lone atrial fibrillation: a single-center experience over 2 decades.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012; 5: 8-14
- The convergent AF ablation procedure: evolution of a multidisciplinary approach to AF management.Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev. 2020; 9: 88-96
- Left atrial anatomy revisited.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012; 5: 220-228
- Age, atrial fibrillation, and structural heart disease are the main determinants of left atrial fibrosis detected by delayed-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in a general cardiology population.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2015; 26: 484-492
- The rationale for isolation of the left atrial pulmonary venous component to control atrial fibrillation: a review article.Heart Rhythm. 2019; 16: 1392-1398
- Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of posterior wall isolation during atrial fibrillation ablation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2019; 12e007005
- Preserved left atrial epicardial conduction in regions of endocardial “isolation.”.JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2018; 4: 557-558
- Proven isolation of the pulmonary vein antrum with or without left atrial posterior wall isolation in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.Heart Rhythm. 2016; 13: 132-140
DeLurgio DB, Crossen K, Gill J, et al. Convergence of epicardial and endocardial RF ablation for the treatment of symptomatic persistent AF. Paper presented at: Heart Rhythm Scientific Sessions; May 8, 2020.
- Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation with heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2018; 378: 417-427
- Short and intermediate term outcomes of the Convergent procedure: initial experience in a tertiary referral center.Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019; 26: 13-21
- Emerging evidence of improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction after convergent ablation in persistent and longstanding persistent AF patients with reduced ejection fraction.Heart Rhythm. 2020; 17: S366
- Subxiphoid minimally invasive epicardial ablation (Convergent procedure) with left thoracoscopic closure of the left atrial appendage.Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018; 23: 152-165
- Pericardial anatomy for the interventional electrophysiologist.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003; 14: 422-430
- Role of endo-epicardial dissociation of electrical activity and transmural conduction in the development of persistent atrial fibrillation.Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2014; 115: 173-185
- Comparative effectiveness of hybrid ablation versus endocardial catheter ablation alone in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2017; 3: 341-349
- Safety and efficacy of a convergent hybrid procedue using cryo as endocardial energy source for the treatment of persistent and longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 75: 424
- Long-term success for the convergent atrial fibrillation procedure: 4-year outcomes.Ann Thorac Surg. 2016; 102: 1550-1557
- Low rate of atrial fibrillation recurrence verified by implantable loop recorder monitoring following a convergent epicardial and endocardial ablation of atrial fibrillation.J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012; 23: 1059-1066
- Closed chest convergent epicardial-endocardial ablation of non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation—a case series and literature review.Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev. 2013; 2: 65-68
- The convergent procedure versus catheter ablation alone in longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation: a single centre, propensity-matched cohort study.Int J Cardiol. 2020; 303: 49-53
- Prospective multicenter arrhythmia free survival using hybrid convergent ablation in non paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients.Heart Rhythm. 2019; 16: S367
- Left atrial appendage: an underrecognized trigger site of atrial fibrillation.Circulation. 2010; 122: 109-118
Steinberg JS, Romanov A. Left atrial appendage isolation for ablation of atrial fibrillation: has a yellow flag been raised? JACC Clin Electrophysiol. In press.
- Epicardial left atrial appendage clip occlusion also provides the electrical isolation of the left atrial appendage.Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012; 15: 416-418
- Comparison of hybrid ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation with and without left atrial appendage closure: report of 1 year follow up.Paper presented at: Venice Arrhythmias; October 3–5, Venice, Italy2019
- Cost-effectiveness of the convergent procedure and catheter ablation for non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.J Med Econ. 2014; 17: 481-491
Funding sources: The authors have no funding sources to disclose.
Disclosures: Dr Makati serves as a consultant, advisor, and proctor for AtriCure, Boston Scientific , and Medtronic and has received research grants from AtriCure, Boston Scientific , and Medtronic . He serves on speakers bureau for Abbott. Dr Sood serves as a consultant for AtriCure. Dr Lee serves as a consultant for AtriCure. Dr Yang serves as a consultant for AtriCure. Dr Shults serves as a consultant for AtriCure and Medtronic and as a proctor for AtriCure. Dr DeLurgio serves as a consultant for AtriCure, Boston Scientific, and Medtronic and on speakers bureau for AtriCure and Boston Scientific. Dr Gill has received research funding from Abbott and lecture honoraria from AtriCure . Dr Kaba serves as a consultant for AtriCure and Biotronik and on speakers bureau for Daiichi Sankyo and Bayer. Dr Ahsan serves on speakers bureau for AtriCure, Biosense Webster, and Boston Scientific. Dr Lellouche serves as a consultant for Medtronic, Abbott, Boston Scientific, and AtriCure. Dr Blaauw has received department research funding from AtriCure and Medtronic and serves as a proctor for AtriCure, Medtronic , Boston Scientific, and Abbott . Dr Zannis serves as a proctor for AtriCure. Dr Sebag serves as a consultant for AtriCure. Dr Gauri serves as a consultant for Medtronic, IRhythm, and AtriCure. Dr Zembala serves as a proctor for AtriCure and as a consultant for Balton, Abbott, and Boston Scientific. Dr Steinberg serves as a consultant for Medtronic , National Cardiac, Allergan , Braveheart, AtriCure , and Corfigo; owns equity in National Cardiac, AliveCor, and Braveheart; and has received research funding from the National Institutes of Health and other support from the American Board of Internal Medicine. The rest of the authors report no conflicts of interest.