Effect of electrode size and spacing on electrograms: Optimized electrode configuration for near-field electrogram characterization

Published:September 14, 2021DOI:


      Detailed effects of electrode size on electrograms (EGMs) have not been systematically examined.


      We aimed to elucidate the effect of electrode size on EGMs and investigate an optimal configuration of electrode size and interelectrode spacing for gap detection and far-field reduction.


      This study included 8 sheep in which probes with different electrode size and interelectrode spacing were epicardially placed on healthy, fatty, and lesion tissues for measurements. Between 3 electrode sizes (0.1 mm/0.2 mm/0.5 mm) with 3 mm spacing. As indices of capability in gap detection and far-field reduction, in different electrode sizes (0.1 mm/0.2 mm/0.5 mm) and interelectrode spacing (0.1 mm/0.2 mm/0.3 mm/0.5 mm/3 mm) and the optimized electrode size and interelectrode spacing were determined. Compared between PentaRay and the optimal probe determined in study 2.


      Study 1 demonstrated that unipolar voltage and the duration of EGMs increased as the electrode size increased in any tissue (P < .001). Bipolar EGMs had the same tendency in healthy/fat tissues, but not in lesions. Study 2 showed that significantly higher gap to lesion volume ratio and healthy to fat tissue voltage ratio were provided by a smaller electrode (0.2 mm or 0.3 mm electrode) and smaller spacing (0.1 mm spacing), but 0.3 mm electrode/0.1 mm spacing provided a larger bipolar voltage (P < .05). Study 3 demonstrated that 0.3 mm electrode/0.1 mm spacing provided less deflection with more discrete EGMs (P < .0001) with longer and more reproducible AF cycle length (P < .0001) compared to PentaRay.


      Electrode size affects both unipolar and bipolar EGMs. Catheters with microelectrodes and very small interelectrode spacing may be superior in gap detection and far-field reduction. Importantly, this electrode configuration could dramatically reduce artifactual complex fractionated atrial electrograms and may open a new era for AF mapping.

      Graphical abstract


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