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Sex differences in cardiac electrophysiology

  • Marek Malik
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests and correspondence: Dr Marek Malik, Imperial College London, ICTEM, Hammersmith Campus, 72 Du Cane Road, Shepherd's Bush, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom.
    Affiliations
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, England

    Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
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Published:August 05, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2022.07.027
      Apart from a faster resting heart rate, the increased duration of the rate-corrected QTc interval likely is the most known and the most prominent physiological electrocardiographic difference between healthy adult females and males.
      • Linde C.
      • Bongiorni M.G.
      • Birgersdotter-Green U.
      • et al.
      Sex differences in cardiac arrhythmia: a consensus document of the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society.
      In earlier reports, this sex difference was inflated by the use of the Bazett correction, which, combined with higher and lower heart rates, produces artificially prolonged and shortened QTc intervals, respectively. Nevertheless, the QTc sex difference is present even with more accurate, that is, subject-specific corrections.
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