Botulinum toxins block acetylcholine release from synaptic nerve terminals and thus interfere with neural signaling. Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is one of several such endotoxins that prevents fusion of acetylcholine vesicles with the terminal membrane, resulting in impairment of cholinergic-based neural transmission. It has been tested extensively for clinical use and is indicated for a variety of noncardiac conditions, with an excellent safety record.
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Published online: September 05, 2022
Funding Sources: Dr Steinberg had received research funding from the NIH (R34HL153579).
Disclosures: Dr Steinberg had received research funding from Medtronic, AliveCor, National Cardiac, AbbVie, and AtriCure. Dr Romanov has no conflicts of interest to disclose.
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