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Pacing-induced cardiomyopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of definition, prevalence, risk factors, and management

Published:November 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2022.09.019
      Pacing-induced cardiomyopathy is a potential complication of right ventricular pacing. Definition varies between studies and the optimal management approach is uncertain. We aimed to characterize definition, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment strategies of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy (PiCM). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated PiCM after pacemaker implantation identified through a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE up to March 2022. We collected data on the study definition of PiCM and calculated pooled prevalence across studies. Meta-analysis with random effects modeling was used to assess the association between potential risk factors and PiCM, reported as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Twenty-six studies (6 prospective studies) with a total of 57,993 patients (mean/median age range was 51–78 years; female 45%) were included in the final analysis. Fifteen unique definitions of PiCM were reported. The pooled prevalence of PiCM was 12% (95% confidence interval 11%–14%). In meta-analysis, risk factors included male sex, history of myocardial infarction, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, native QRS duration, right ventricular pacing percentage, and paced QRS duration. Treatment strategies identified included biventricular cardiac resynchronization therapy (6 studies) and His-bundle pacing (3 studies). Definition of PiCM varied significantly between studies. More than 1 in 10 patients with chronic right ventricular pacing developed PiCM. Key risk factors included baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, native QRS duration, RV pacing percentage, and paced QRS duration. The optimal management strategy has yet to be defined. Further research is needed to define and treat this understated complication.

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