Research Article|Articles in Press

Concomitant leadless pacing in pacemaker-dependent patients undergoing transvenous lead extraction for active infection: Mid-term follow-up

Published:February 08, 2023DOI:


      The rate of transvenous lead extraction (TLE) due to cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection continues to rise. CIED infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Temporary pacing in patients with active CIED infections after TLE can be challenging. Leadless pacing has emerged as an alternative approach in this patient population.


      The purpose of this study was to describe the outcomes of a strategy using concomitant leadless pacemaker implantation and TLE in patients with active infections and ongoing pacing requirements.


      This study involved all leadless pacemaker implantation procedures performed during TLE between June 2018 and September 2022 in the setting of active infection. Demographic characteristics, procedural details, and clinical outcomes were analyzed.


      The study included 86 patients with indications for ongoing pacing, 60 (70%) men with mean age 77.4 ± 10.5 years, who underwent TLE and concomitant leadless pacemaker implantation in the setting of active infection. There were no procedure-related complications. Sixty-five patients (76%) had evidence of bacteremia, 80% of whom were discharged to complete their antimicrobial treatment. During a median follow-up of 163 days (interquartile range 57–403 days), there were no recurrent infections. Of the 25 deaths (29%) during the study period, 22 (88%) were unrelated to the initial infection. Nine deceased patients (36%) had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Candida infections, 3 of whom had persistent infection despite TLE.


      Leadless pacing is a safe and efficacious approach for the management of patients with pacing requirements that undergo CIED extraction in the setting of active infection.


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