Tiny pacemakers for tiny babies

Published:February 21, 2023DOI:

      Graphical abstract


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Heart Rhythm
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Bar-Cohen Y.
        • Berul C.I.
        • Alexander M.E.
        • et al.
        Age, size, and lead factors alone do not predict venous obstruction in children and young adults with transvenous lead systems.
        J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006; 17: 754-759
        • Warner K.A.
        • Halpin D.P.
        • Berul C.I.
        • Payne D.D.
        Placement of a permanent epicardial pacemaker in children using a subcostal approach.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 1999; 68: 173-175
        • Fortescue E.B.
        • Berul C.I.
        • Cecchin F.
        • Triedman J.K.
        • Walsh E.P.
        • Alexander M.E.
        Patient, procedural, and hardware factors associated with pacemaker lead failures in pediatrics and congenital heart disease.
        Heart Rhythm. 2004; 1: 150-159
        • Shah M.J.
        • Silka M.J.
        • Silva J.N.A.
        • et al.
        2021 PACES expert consensus statement on the indications and management of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices in pediatric patients.
        Simultaneously published Heart Rhythm. 2021; 18 (Cardiol Young 2021;3:1738–1769; JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021;7:1437–1473; Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2021:21;367–393): 1888-1924
        • Kumthekar R.
        • Opfermann J.
        • Mass P.
        • et al.
        Minimally invasive percutaneous epicardial placement of a prototype miniature pacemaker with leadlet under direct visualization: a feasibility study in an infant porcine model.
        Heart Rhythm. 2019; 16: 1261-1267
        • US Food and Drug Administration
        Expanded Access for Medical Devices.
        • Pike J.I.
        • Donofrio M.T.
        • Berul C.I.
        Ineffective therapy, underpowered studies, or merely too-little-too-late? Risk factors and impact of maternal corticosteroid treatment on outcome in antibody-associated fetal heart block.
        Circulation. 2011; 124: 1905-1907
        • Jordan C.P.
        • Wu K.L.
        • Costello J.P.
        • et al.
        Minimally invasive resynchronization pacemaker: feasibility of a novel pediatric implantation route in a piglet model.
        Ann Thorac Surg. 2013; 96: 2210-2213