- Active fixation coronary sinus (CS) leads provide additional support within the CS via deployable lobes or a side helix. However, adherence to the CS may lead to higher risk of extraction and CS tear during extraction. There is limited data on outcomes of CS tear during active fixation lead extraction.
- Pulse electric fields (PEF) are being investigated as an alternative ablation modality to traditional radiofrequency ablation for modification of myocardial substrate.
- Ablation of deep septal substrate with thermal energy sources conveys many challenges including inadequate lesion depth, inadvertent steam pops, and conduction system injury.