- AF is often found in association with an ASD.1–4 There are an increasing number of patients undergoing transcatheter closure of an ASD who subsequently develop AF in clinical practice.2–4 Catheter ablation has emerged as an effective treatment strategy for drug-refractory symptomatic AF.5 While transseptal access to the left atrium (LA) is a prerequisite for AF ablation, it may prove difficult in the presence of an ASD closure device.6,7 Anticipating technical difficulties and potential complications may discourage operators from considering catheter ablation of AF in this particular patient population.
- Sophisticated imaging methods have been growing in popularity since the introduction of curative ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation (AF). This trend is predicated on the need for a precise anatomic guidance within the complex left atrial (LA) anatomy and less reliance on electrocardiographic characteristics of the substrate. Traditional two-dimensional imaging methods such as fluoroscopy would not satisfy the needs of a complex catheter navigation inside three-dimensional (3D) anatomic structures that may not be confined to the radiographic cardiac silhouette (e.g., pulmonary veins [PVs]).
- Complete transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) accounts for 5% to 7% of congenital heart defects. Although the arterial switch procedure has now replaced atrial redirection as the surgical procedure of choice, most adults today with D-TGA have had Mustard or Senning baffles. These surgeries involve extensive atrial reconstruction and predispose to sinus node dysfunction and atrial tachyarrhythmias.1,2 By 20 years after surgery, the prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmias is approximately 25%, continues to increase with time, and is similar among patients with Mustard or Senning baffles.
- Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a particularly complex arrhythmia because the mechanisms leading to fibrillation are not fully understood. Accordingly, ablation strategies have evolved largely on an empirical basis. The creation of linear lesions is a fundamental strategy that is indispensable to an electrophysiology laboratory performing ablation for treatment of this arrhythmia.
- Studies have demonstrated that myocardium surrounding pulmonary vein (PV) ostia plays an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF).1,2 This important finding has led to the development of segmental PV ostial isolation, circumferential ablation, and isolation around the PVs using circular linear lesions guided by three-dimensional (3D) electroanatomic mapping. Substrate modification using limited linear ablation also has been demonstrated to improve the clinical outcome after PV isolation in patients with AF inducibility.