Ablation above the semilunar valves: When, why, and how? Part IIn this two-part series, we discuss the anatomical basis for arrhythmias arising above the semilunar valves. In this part (part I), we describe the relevant anatomy and technique for mapping and ablation of ventricular arrhythmias arising above either the pulmonic or the aortic valve. After an initial discussion of the underlying anatomy and characteristics of the substrate targeted for ablation above the semilunar valve, an approach for safe and effective ablation of supravalvar ventricular arrhythmias is presented.
Ablation above the semilunar valves: When, why, and how? Part IIIn this two-part series on arrhythmias occurring above the semilunar valve, we discuss the relevant underlying anatomy and the technique for mapping and ablation above the aortic and pulmonic valve. In part I, we focused on ventricular arrhythmias, and in this paper (part II), we discuss the anatomy and present knowledge of the substrate mapped and ablated above the aortic valve for atrial tachycardia in certain unusual accessory pathways. The background anatomy of the aortic valve has been discussed in part I of this series, to which the reader is referred.